Gestionar Proyectos: ¿Arte o Ciencia?

Arte o Ciencia

 

Responder a este simple pregunta no es tan fácil como pueda parecer a simple vista, y prueba de ello es la diferencia de opiniones que podeis encontrar en la red: desde los que apuestan por ciencia con el argumento de que incluye existen técnicas, herramientas, y procesos que nos ayudan a la labor, hasta los que apuesta por el arte debido a las interacciones que un jefe de proyecto tiene que tener con los stakeholders de un proyecto -clientes, proveedores, los gestores, etc...

Para dar respuesta a esta pregunta vamos a echar un ojo a las responsabilidades que debe tener un buen jefe de proyecto:

  • Asegurar que todos los hitos y resultados sean alcanzados cumpliendo las restricciones de tiempos, costos y respetando los estándares de calidad.
  • Alcanzar los objetivos contractuales.
  • Trabajar conjuntamente con los Responsables Funcionales para asegurar que los recursos se empleen en forma eficaz y eficiente.
  • Actuar como el punto principal de comunicación entre el cliente (externo), patrocinador, la alta dirección y las direcciones funcionales (internos).
  • Preparación de planes realistas.
  • Mantener informados a stakeholders en forma completa.
  • Tomar todas las decisiones necesarias, ya sean para alternativas o para la terminación.
  • Proponer o iniciar acciones correctivas.
  • Responsabilidad final total.
  • Resolver todos los conflictos, si es posible.

Para poder responder con éxito a dichas responsabilidades, un Director de Proyecto tiene que tener o adquirir una serie de capacidades y habilitades, que se pueden catalogar de la siguiente forma:

  • Capacidades Técnicas. Conocimiento de procedimientos, métodos y procesos.
  • Capacidades Humanas. Habilidades que permitan trabajar con personas (comunicación, trabajo cooperativo,…).
  • Capacidades Conceptuales y de Diseño. Capacidad de entender el entorno, analizarlo y adaptarse.

Con este plateamiento, la dirección de proyecto se puede considerar una ciencia, ya que se basa en métodos, procesos, datos empíricos, aunque sin embargo no es un factor suficiente ya que se necesitan una serie de habilidades sociales.

Entonces, ¿como definiriamos la Dirección de Proyectos? Después de mucho buscar/leer, la definición con la que me encuentro más cómodo se resumen en esta frase:

Gestionar un proyecto es un Arte que se basa en conocimientos Científicos

Decimos que es un “arte” puesto que las decisiones no están unívocamente determinadas por cada situación (cada proyecto varía significativamente en función del entorno, con lo que podríamos aplicar la fase de José Ortega y Gasset: “Yo soy yo y mi circunstancia”) y utilizamos el término “ciencia” puesto que el director de proyecto debe utilizar todas las experiencias, procesos, herramientas y técnicas conocidas y científicamente válidas.

En resumen, para ser un buen Director de Proyecto no sólo es necesario aprender (o chapar) una serie de técnicas o usar unas buenas herramientas, es condición necesaria pero no suficiente. Para dirigir correctamente un proyecto necesitamos una serie de habilidades y experiencias que nos ayuden a la interacción con el entorno.

 

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